Dear student, As salamu Alykum,
Hope you are in a good health and mind. Today you are gonna learn the narration changes. This page is exclusive for Narration Changes for HSC, SSC and JSC student in Bangladesh. You can master here the basics of changing narration in this post. Keep reading the details in the ensuing lines.
|Narration or Speech is what a speaker says. We can convey a message of a person to other person. We can say it in two ways:1. (Exactly) Direct Speech2. (Reportedly) Indirect Speech.|
Direct speech: John said, “I will give you a pen”.
Reporting speech Reported speech
Indirect Speech: John said that he would give me a pen.
Reporting verb Reported speech
Direct Speech: Sohana said, “I am busy now”.
Indirect Speech: Sohana said that she was busy then.
If the reporting speech is in the present or future tenses, there will be no tense change.
If the reporting speech is in the past tense, tenses will be changed as below.
Direct Speech: Sohana says, “I am busy with my job”.
Indirect Speech: Sohana says that she is busy with her job.
|Ø John said to Rina|
|Ø John told Rina|
|Ø NOT: John said Rina or John told to Rina|
|Present Indefinite > Past Indefinite||Do, Does, go > did, V2, went|
|Present continuous > Past Continuous||Am, is, are > was, were|
|Present Perfect > Past Perfect||Have, Has > had|
|Present Perfect Continuous > Past Perfect Continuous|
|Past Indefinite > Past Perfect||V2 > Had|
|Past Continuous > Past Perfect Continuous||Was, were > had been|
|Past Perfect > Unchanged|
|Past Perfect Continuous > Unchanged|
|Universal Truth > Unchanged|
|Habitual Activities > Unchanged|
Examples of Tense changing
|Sakib said, “ I write a letter”|
|Sakib said, “ I am writing a letter”|
|Sakib said, “I have written a letter”|
|Sakib said, “ I have been writing a letter”|
|Sakib said, “ I wrote a letter”|
|Sakib said, “I was writing a letter”|
|Sakib said, “ I had written a letter”|
|Sakib said, “ I had been writing a letter”|
|Sakib said, “I shall write”|
|Sakib said, “ I shall be writing”|
|Sakib said, “I shall have written a letter.”|
|Sakib said, “I shall have been writing a letter”|
Sentence Changes in Narration
|v Assertive sentence:1. Affirmative 2. Negative||v Assertive sentence:1. Affirmative2. Negative|
|Interrogative sentence||Karim asked Rina WH/Whether/if…..|
|Imperative sentence1. Order2. Request3. Forbid|
4. Let us/ let’s1. Karim told Rina to open the door2. Karim requested Rina to open the door3. Karim told Rina not to open the door
4. Karim suggested Rina that they should…Optative sentenceKarim wished Rina that Allah might help her.Exclamatory sentenceKarim exclaimed with/in wonder/sorrow/joy + that
More example of Sentence changes
|Sakib said, “ I don’t like cigarettes”||Sakib said that ………………………|
|Sakib said to Shishir, “Do you like chocolate?”|
|Sakib said to Shishir, “Why are you laughing?”|
|Sakib said to Shishir, “Give me a cup of tea.”|
|Sakib said to Shishir, “Don’t make a noise”|
|Sakib said to Shishir, “May you be happy”|
|Sakib said, “What a nice garden it is!”|
Other Changes in Word in Naration
|Sub: you||I /we||thus||In that way|
|Obj: you||Me/us||yesterday||The day before/ the previous day|
|us||them||Last night||The previous night/ the night before|
|me||Him||Next week||The following week|
|will||Would||Next year||The following year|
|hither||Thither||today||That day/ the same day|
|may||Might||Last week||The previous week|
|can||Could||Last year||The previous year|
|would||Would||A year ago||A year before / the previous year|
|Must||Must / had to||sir||respectfully|
|could||Could||The day before yesterday||two days ago|
|Ought to||Ought to||The day after tomorrow||in two days’ time|
|tomorrow||The next day/ the following day||now||Then|
|Ought to||Next year|
|Here||A year ago|
- Go through the whole passage with complete understanding of it and try to find out who is speaking to whom.
- While changing questions and their answers quote the missing words of the context.
To reply a question, say… replied that
Yes = replied in the affirmative that
No = replied in the negative that
- If sentences of the same kinds are consecutively spoken by the same speaker,
use…………added that/ also said that/ again said that.
|For assertive sentences, use……..||For Interrogative sentences, use…..|
| And added thatAnd also said thatAnd again said that
and further added that
and moreover added that
and again added that
Asked whether/ whAnd again asked whether/ whAnd further asked whether/ wh
And more asked whether/ wh
- Don’t change the long and elaborated descriptions or words that exist outside the quotation marks/ reported speech.
- Put the reporting verb in front wherever it is.
- If there is but at the beginning of the sentence, leave out it.
- If an assertive sentence contains a question mark at the end, use…. Being surprised,
- If there is “Please”, use……… requested.
- If there is Sir/Madam, use ………
- If somebody is addressed, use……….addressing sb as sth.
- If somebody swears saying by Allah/My life etc. Use……….swearing by……
- If the direct speech contains the following words, then use desired expressions.
|Good morning/ evening||wished somebody good morning/ good evening|
|Thank you||thanked me/him etc.|
|Good night/ good bye||Bade somebody good night/ good bye.|
|Of course||Agreed with|
- If it is not mentioned that who is speaking to whom
Use.. The speaker and the listener/ The person spoken to .
- If the reporting verb is cried/mutter/replied/asked etc. they remain unchanged.
- Quote the missing words of the context while changing question and answer.
Rewrite the following passage in the indirect speech
- Once I asked a sweet little girl, “What is your mother’s name?” She replied cleverly, “I know my mother’s name. I won’t tell you that.” I said, “What a clever girl you are!” “I do not tell my mother’s name to anybody whom I do not know” she said with an air of confidence.
- “Will you come to my house tomorrow?” I asked the boy. “We can discuss terms and conditions then” I said. “I shall be very happy to meet you at your house. Thank you so much” he replied.
This may have guided you to get the basic ideas on changing narration. For mastering the narration, you can ask me here.